The Aqueduct was commissioned by Philip II of Spain from the architect Filipe Terzi with the purpose of bringing water to the Convent and its lands and thus making it more self-sufficient.
It has roughly 7 km of stone pipework, covered with stone slabs and runs for most of its length at ground level, with arches of variable size and height added where necessary.
To cross Pegões valley it uses 58 arcos de volta inteira, which, in the area where the valley is at its lowest, are supported by a lower tier of 16 arcos quebrados. On either side of the valley are water purification installations on top of the aqueduct with vaulted cupolas.
The aqueduct ends with large arches ending at the south façade of the Convent, which was finished in 1619. The culmination is the monumental fountain in the Main Cloister attributed to Pedro Fernandes Torres.